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A mineral is a substance that is found in nature. Its chemical composition is fixed, although it sometimes contains a polluting substance that changes its color. It is inorganic and has a fixed geometric structure, that is why it is solid. It has a certain crystalline structure. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are more than 5000 known mineral species. They can be distinguished by various physical and chemical properties. There are different species depending on their chemical composition and crystal structure. The geological environment influences the properties of the mineral. They are commonly classified into 2 groups: Metallic minerals: in this type of mineral the extraction is carried out to obtain a specific metal. There are 4 types: Basic (copper, zinc, lead…), ferrous (iron, cobalt, chromium…), precious (silver, gold…) and radioactive (radio, plutonium…) Non-metallic minerals: Mineral resources are extracted that after treating them have different uses: saltpeter, iodine, lithium salts, gypsum, iron oxide, cement, lime, phosphates, sulfur, aluminum sulfate, alumina, bauxite, chromite ... Silicon and oxygen make up the majority of the earth's crust, with the predominant silicate minerals. Other common elements in the earth's crust are aluminum, iron, magnesium, sodium, calcium, and potassium. The most important silicates would be: Feldspars, olivines, amphiboles, quartz, micas, granites and pyroxenes. Non-silicate minerals are divided into different classes: Native elements, organic compounds, oxides and hydroxides, sulfides, carbonates and nitrates, phosphates, halides, borates and sulfates. Minerals are very important because they are applied in different activities. Some minerals are used in the same way that they are mined; sulfur, salt ... but others must be subjected to certain processes to have the product; Aluminum, copper ... Minerals are a source of obtaining metals. The minerals are obtained from mines where the required material is extracted. There are 2 types of mines: Open pit mines: ore can be drilled or blown up and loaded onto trucks. They are exploited in spiral terraces Underground mines: rock is drilled or blown up in a controlled manner. There are descent shafts to the horizontal galleries.

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