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Aluminium

"Aluminum (Al) has a density of 2812.5 kg / m³ and is characterized by its high resistance to corrosion, in addition to being a good conductor of electricity and heat, it is easily machined. Its fusion occurs at 660 ºC Series Designation Main alloy Main compounds in the alloy Series 1000 1XXX 99% at least aluminum - Series 2000 2XXX Copper (Cu) Al2Cu - Al2CuMg 3000 Series 3XXX Manganese (Mn) Al6Mn Series 4000 4XXX Silicon (Si) - Series 50005XXX Magnesium (Mg) Al3Mg2 Series 60006XXX Magnesium (Mg) and Silicon (Si) Mg2Si Series 70007XXX Zinc (Zn) MgZn2 Series80008XXX Other items - Some of its most important processes are: The extrusion process consists of applying pressure to the aluminum cylinder (billet) by passing it through a mold (matrix), to achieve the desired shape. Each type of profile has a suitable mold called "matrix", which is what will determine its shape. The billet is heated (approximately 500 ° C, the temperature at which the aluminum reaches a plastic state) to facilitate its passage through the die, and is introduced into the press. The machining process for aluminum in chip removal machines is less than that required for steel. So they lead to lower energy consumption and in turn less wear on the tools. Aluminum recycling is tremendously important. Due to its high cost of obtaining derived from the energy consumption required. Problem that is solved with its low recycling cost. Taking into account that aluminum is the third most common element in the earth's crust. This metal comes solely from the extraction of the mineral, called bauxite. First by transformation into alumina through a process called Bayer and then into metallic aluminum by electrolysis. The name of bauxite comes from the French town Les Baux, where it was first mined. The main deposits worldwide are in Australia, Brazil and Africa. Bauxite is a mineral very rich in aluminum, up to 30% by mass, compared to 20% of the aluminum silicates existing in clays and coals. As a practical example we can say that, with four tons of bauxite, we will obtain two tons of alumina and, finally, one of aluminum. The Bayer process begins with the crushing of the bauxite and its washing with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide at high pressure and temperature. Soda dissolves aluminum compounds, which, being in a strongly basic medium, hydrate. Aluminum is 100% recyclable without changing its physical qualities and, as we have previously mentioned, the aluminum recycling process requires only 5% of the energy necessary to produce primary aluminum. Recycled aluminum is called secondary aluminum, maintaining the same properties as primary aluminum. Secondary aluminum recycling requires specialized techniques, which vary depending on the type of scrap that we are going to melt. In addition, to carry out an optimal aluminum recycling process, an exhaustive selection and separation of the scrap must be carried out in order to achieve the desired alloy. Thus, for example, when the raw material is shavings or fine scrap, a dryer-deslacadora is used, to obtain the maximum performance in the fusion. This takes place in vortex type ovens. If, on the other hand, we start from slag or low-quality scrap, it is melted in rotary kilns. The saline slag generated is sent to a cooling system and by means of conveyor belts it is taken to the storage silos and later to the salt recovery plants. The molten aluminum is transferred to reverberant holding furnaces, equipped with a stirring system using porous plugs, which homogenizes the alloy and temperature of the liquid aluminum. Finally, the alloyed metal is transferred to a casting machine to obtain ingots or it is poured directly into ladles for transport in liquid state by road. "

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