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Iron & Steel

"""Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. The composition by mass of the latter varies between 0.03% and 2%. For this reason there are different types of steel. This material is so popular because its components are so abundant . Different variants can be achieved by adding other materials. It is a versatile and adaptable material. Its density is 7850 kg / m³. Its fusion varies depending on the alloy and the percentages of the elements that create this alloy, but in general it is around 1,375 ° C. There are several types of steel: Mild steel: Carbon <0.15% Intermediate steel: Carbon 0.15-0.3% Hard steel: Carbon 0.3% < Stainless steel: alloy containing alloying elements (8% <) such as chromium or nickel Galvanized steel: It is coated with zinc Tinplate: Has a small layer of tin To produce steel, you need iron. The iron ore from the mine in a part gangue (impurities) and another ore (mineral). During the manufacturing process, iron impurities are removed, adding carbon or other elements. There are 2 methods to make steel: from scrap or from the use of pig iron. Making steel from pig iron consists of reducing iron (pig iron). The materials used in blast furnaces are iron ore, coke and limestone. The coke is used as fuel and separates the impurities from the rest of the material together with the limestone. Once the impurities are removed, the iron is almost pure with a small amount of carbon (pig iron). This will be the steel that is obtained in a liquid state and then it is passed to the next process to shape it. It is also possible to make it from scrap metal. It has to be melted in an electric blast furnace so that it can be reused. This is the most economical and ecological way The traditional blast furnace (rolled steel) or electric furnaces (scrap steel) can be used. In both procedures, several measurements are made to extract samples and check the chemical composition of the steel. In this way, what is necessary could be corrected to achieve the desired final finish. To recycle steel, contaminants must be removed so it can be melted and re-forged. Approximately 80% of steel is recycled, making it the most recycled material. Steel is a material that is manufactured respecting the environment and protecting it. It can be recycled unlimitedly without losing its quality. All steel products are recyclable. By recycling this material, half of the energy required for the extraction of the primary is saved. """

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