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Stainless steel

"""Stainless steel is an alloy of steel that has at least 10-12% chromium, although it can also contain other metals such as nickel, aluminum, tungsten or molybdenum. Chromium reacts with oxygen creating a layer of oxide of Chromium, which is called passive layer. It prevents the reaction between iron and oxygen and therefore is a steel with high resistance to atmospheric corrosion and oxidation. It is a material that does not destroy itself. It is solid. It is a material of great durability and hardness. It is ductile, therefore it can be deformed without breaking. Its melting point is 1,427 ° C and its density depends on the type of alloy. Stainless steel is a 100% recyclable chrome-containing iron alloy. It is classified into 4 families according to its chemical composition: Austenitic, Martensitic, Ferritic and Duplex. Austenitic Stainless Steel: Iron + Chromium + Nickel + Carbon (less than 0.10%). There are two types that are the best known of this group. On the one hand, 18/18 steel (14304) which is 18% chromium and another 18% nickel. On the other hand, 18/10 (14301) steel which has 18% chromium and 10% nickel. Martensitic Stainless Steel: Iron + Chromium (10-12%) + Carbon (0.10% <) Ferritic Stainless Steel: Iron + Carbon (<0.10%) + Chromium (16-18%) + Nickel (low content) Duplex Stainless Steel: Iron + Chromium (18-38%) + Nickel (4.5-8%). They are built in two phases: ferrite and austenite Stainless steel undergoes a series of transformations from when the raw materials are melted until the desired thickness is obtained. It is divided into 3 stages: steel mill, hot rolling and cold rolling. In the first stage, the desired chemical composition is obtained in which the quality will be defined based on ferroalloys, scrap metal and other elements. In hot rolling, the thickness or diameter is reduced by taking advantage of the ductility that the material has at high temperatures. Finally, cold rolling is the stage in which the final thickness or diameter is obtained. This reduction is done without preheating. The raw materials are melted in an electric arc furnace. The excess carbon is then removed. Once it has been removed, the steel is melted and molded. Afterwards, it is rolled in a hot and a cold process and then goes through the annealing process. In the latter, stainless steel softens, improves its ductility and refines the grain structure. As it produces scales, it is bathed in nitric-hydrofluoric acid to de-scale it. After it is cut, generally mechanical cutting is used, and it is refined. Stainless steel is recyclable and does not lose quality. Its demand has increased a lot in recent years, which is why recycling is very important. Since these alloys are similar in appearance, advanced identification technology is used. Once the material is classified, it is packed and sheared. The ferrous metals are then separated from other materials. Finally, the recovered materials are melted and shaped into an ingot. """

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