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"Minor metals are so called due to lack of familiarity, they are so dispersed that their production is viable in areas where there are high concentrations.
These metals are extracted as by-products of other minerals such as aluminum, copper or nickel in which they are found in low concentrations. Many of them are scarce and have great economic importance due to their applications in cutting-edge technology in different sectors and in renewable energies. Most are used as addition elements in ferrous or non-ferrous metals to form different steels and alloys. The best known are antimony, manganese, bismuth, selenium, and mercury.
Antimony (Sb): is the chemical element with atomic number 51 of group 15 of the periodic table of elements. It is mainly used in alloys, especially lead. It is not abundant in nature and is mainly found as a mixture of isomorphic with arsenic (allemonite). In liquid form it has more electrical conductivity than in solid unlike other metals. It has a density of 6697 kg / m3 and its melting point is 631 ° C. The leading countries in the production of this material are China, Russia and Tajikistan.
Manganese (Mn): is the chemical element with atomic number 25 of group 7 of the periodic table of elements. It is found free in nature and often in combination with iron and in many minerals. It is very important in steel making. It has a density of 7430 kg / m3 and its melting point is 1246 ° C. The largest producers are South Africa, Australia, China and Gabon.
Bismuth (Bi): is the chemical element with atomic number 83 from group 15 of the periodic table of elements. It is a rare element in the earth's crust. It expands on solidification and is diamagnetic. In nature it exists as free metal and in minerals.
It has a melting point at 271 ° C and its density is 9800 kg / m³. It is an ideal metal for foundries. The largest producers of this metal are China, Mexico, Russia, Canada and Bolivia.
Selenium (Se): is the chemical element with atomic number 34 of the periodic table of the elements. It has the photoelectric effect, that is, it converts light into electricity and when exposed to light its electrical conductivity increases. It is widely distributed in the earth's crust. The largest producers are China, Russia, Norway and the United States. It has a density of 4790 kg / m3 and its melting point is 221 ° C.
Mercury (Hg): it is the chemical element with atomic number 80 of the periodic table of the elements. It is the only liquid metallic element at room temperature. It is a rare element in the earth's crust and is in deposits around the world mainly as mercury sulfide (cinnabar) and is found in its natural form. It is used primarily in the manufacture of industrial chemicals or in electrical and electronic applications. It has a density of 13,534 kg / m3 and its melting point is −39 ° C. The largest producers of mercury are China, Indonesia and Tajikistan."