"Rubber or gum is a polymer that is created as a viscous material called latex in the sap of various plants, although it can also be synthetic. After being coagulated, it is a highly elastic impermeable mass with many applications in industry. Latex , It is mainly extracted from the Hevea brasiliensis native to the Amazon, although it is also extracted from other plants. The tree that provided the rubber only grew in South America, although it later expanded. Michael Faraday, after investigating, got to know that rubber was formed by hydrocarbon chains and in this way it was known that there was the possibility of creating synthetic rubber. Rubber is used to create many articles with different uses. Its main use is the manufacture of tires, rims, waterproof and insulating articles. It is also used, although it is not very common to make clothing. It has very good elastic properties, it is resistant to acids and alkaline substances, it also has resistance to water and isolates electricity and temperature. Finally, it is easy to dissolve in petrolatums, benzenes and some hydrocarbons. Natural rubber is vulcanized (heated and sulfur or selenium is added) and thus the elastomer chains are bound together and thus improve their elasticity and resistance to temperature changes. There is also cold vulcanization in which the rubber is immersed in a solution of sulfur monochloride. Today most of the rubber produced is synthetic, although natural rubber is still used. The techniques to work the rubber are the following: Compression molding: the raw material (powder) is introduced into a heated mold (140-160 ° C) and subjected to high pressure. After a few minutes it is plasticized and cured in the mold and then the piece is removed. (electricity switches and fuse holders, machinery ...) Transfer molding: it is similar to the previous process. In this case, the raw material is preheated before putting it into the mold and is transferred hydraulically. Injection molding: the raw material is put into a hopper and due to gravity falls into the machine. It is injected under pressure into the closed mold with a heated screw with a temperature lower than that of the injected raw material. The part is then removed. Ideal for the production of products in large quantities. Dehumidification process: through an automatic system. The raw material to be used is placed at the desired humidity levels, specific to each material and the product to be manufactured. Mold tempering machines: it is a system by which the tempering machines decrease or increase the temperature of the mold in the pre-molding process. Depending on the raw material used, the mold has to reach a different temperature. Rubber recycling is very important because millions of tires are used and disposed of around the world. In fact, a tire takes many years to decompose and rubber is polluting (it is flammable, it emits harmful gases when burned and its accumulation makes it a source of infection). The most used method to recycle synthetic rubber is mechanical crushing through which various end products are achieved for the market. It can be used as an insulator for vehicles, carpets, rugs…. Its use is very wide. "
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